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TITLE Optimal circular dichroism sensing with quantum light: Multiparameter estimation approach
KIAS AUTHORS Lee, Changhyoup
ARCHIVE quant-ph/2008.03888
ABSTRACT The measurement of circular dichroism (CD) has widely been exploited to distinguish the different enantiomers of chiral structures. It has been applied to natural materials (e.g., molecules) as well as to artificial materials (e.g., nanophotonic structures). However, especially for chiral molecules the signal level is very low and increasing the signal-to-noise ratio is of paramount importance to either shorten the necessary measurement time or to lower the minimum detectable molecule concentration. As one solution to this problem, we propose here to use quantum states of light in CD sensing to reduce the noise below the shot noise level encountered when using coherent states of light. Through a multiparameter estimation approach, we identify the ultimate quantum limit of the precision in CD sensing, allowing for general schemes including additional ancillary modes. We show that the ultimate quantum limit can be achieved by various optimal schemes. These include using a pair of Fock-state probes in a direct sensing configuration and pairs of twin beams in an ancilla-assisted sensing configuration, for both of which photon number-resolved detection is shown to be the optimal measurement. These optimal schemes offer a significant quantum enhancement even in the presence of some additional system loss. The near optimality of a scheme using a single twin beam in a direct sensing configuration is also shown for cases where the actual CD signal is very small. Alternative optimal schemes involving single-photon sources and detectors are also proposed. This work paves the way for further investigations of quantum metrological techniques in chirality sensing.
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