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TITLE Star-Gas Misalignment in Galaxies. II. Origins Found from the Horizon-AGN Simulation
KIAS AUTHORS Pichon, Christophe
JOURNAL ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES, 2021
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ABSTRACT There have been many studies aiming to reveal the origins of the star-gas misalignment found in galaxies, but there still is a lack of understanding of the contribution from each formation channel candidate. We aim to answer the question by investigating the misaligned galaxies in the Horizon-AGN simulation. There are 27,903 galaxies of stellar mass M (*) > 10(10) M (circle dot) in our sample, of which 5984 are in a group in the halo mass of M (200) > 10(12) M (circle dot). We have identified four main formation channels of misalignment and quantified their levels of contribution: mergers (35%), interaction with nearby galaxies (23%), interaction with dense environments or their central galaxies (21%), and secular evolution, including smooth accretion from neighboring filaments (21%). We found in the simulation that the gas, rather than stars, is typically more vulnerable to dynamical disturbances; hence, misalignment formation is mainly due to the change in the rotational axis of the gas rather than stars, regardless of the origin. We have also inspected the lifetime (duration) of the misalignment. The decay timescale of the misalignment shows a strong anticorrelation with the kinematic morphology (V/sigma) and the cold gas fraction of the galaxy. The misalignment has a longer lifetime in denser regions, which is linked with the environmental impact on the host galaxy. There is a substantial difference in the length of the misalignment lifetime depending on the origin, and it can be explained by the magnitude of the initial position angle offset and the physical properties of the galaxies.
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