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AUTHOR Kim, Seonghoon
TITLE CHARMM-GUI Supports Hydrogen Mass Repartitioning and Different Protonation States of Phosphates in Lipopolysaccharides
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JOURNAL JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL INFORMATION AND MODELING, 2021
ABSTRACT Hydrogen mass repartitioning (HMR) that permits time steps of allatom molecular dynamics simulation up to 4 fs by increasing the mass of hydrogen atoms has been used in protein and phospholipid bilayers simulations to improve conformational sampling. Molecular simulation input generation via CHARMM-GUI now supports HMR for diverse simulation programs. In addition, considering ambiguous pH at the bacterial outer membrane surface, different protonation states, either -2e or -1e, of phosphate groups in lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are also supported in CHARMM-GUI LPS Modeler. To examine the robustness of HMR and the influence of protonation states of phosphate groups on LPS bilayer properties, eight different LPS-type all-atom systems with two phosphate protonation states are modeled and simulated utilizing both OpenMM 2-fs (standard) and 4-fs (HMR) schemes. Consistency in the conformational space sampled by standard and HMR simulations shows the reliability of HMR even in LPS, one of the most complex biomolecules. For systems with different protonation states, similar conformations are sampled with a PO41- or PO(4)(-)(2)group, but different phosphate protonation states make slight impacts on lipid packing and conformational properties of LPS acyl chains. Systems with PO41- have a slightly smaller area per lipid and thus slightly more ordered lipid A acyl chains compared to those with PO42-, due to more electrostatic repulsion between PO42- even with neutralizing Ca2+ ions. HMR and different protonation states of phosphates of LPS available in CHARMM-GUI are expected to be useful for further investigations of biological systems of diverse origin.
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